Durgapur is a city of emotions in the Bardhaman District, in the state of West Bengal, India. Durgapur is the third largest in West Bengal. Durgapur is the second planned emotional city of India after Chandigarh and has the only operational dry (inland) port in Eastern India. It is one of the six Municipal Corporations in West Bengal.
Durgapur known as the "Ruhr of India, is a reality born out of the dream of Dr. B. C. Roy, the then Chief Minister of West Bengal. The well laid out Industrial Township was designed by Joseph Allen Stein and Benjamin Polk.
This huge industrial belt, situated between the two rivers, Ajoy and Damodar, was just a small hamlet founded by a landlord named Gopinath Chattopadhya and was originally called Gopinathpur. The name Durgapur possibly came from one of his sons, Durgadas. The entire area is believed to be the part of LOWER GONDWANA LAND and anthropological as well as archeological research has turned up evidence that the landmass once was a seabed, as suggested by marine fossils. There are signs of both prehistoric and later civilizations beginning from Paleolithic to advanced copper ages. Various artifacts such as chisels, terra-cotta walls, foundations, copper bracelets and in particular, a stone seal signifies that a thriving civilization existed here between 3500B.C. to 1200B.C. which has been proved by radio-carbon testing. Archeological excavations at Birbhanpur, on the bank of the Damodar, have revealed a number of stone implements. These are dated to be around 5,000 BC. Many of these are hunting implements used by pre-historic hunters. Earlier, some of the excavations at Pandu Rajar Dhibi, on the banks of the Ajay, just beyond Durgapur but in Bardhaman district, revealed traces of a civilisation possibly linked with the Indus Valley Civilisation. These are important historical finds and are yet to be fully explored.
Historical evidence and folklore has created interesting amalgamations here. The Grand Trunk road, built by Sher Shah runs through here and a small hill having ancient stone structures, near the present city centre complex, was possibly a watch tower built during those times. However, folklore has it that a local powerful landlord named 'lcchai Ghosh' probably used it as an observation post. Many old temples scattered around the area proves the existence of an established religiosity.
Durgapur is known worldwide for the wide range of industries that it houses making it one the biggest industrial hub in eastern India. Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) one of the largest industrial unit of the state, one of the integrated Steel plants of Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is situated here. The pioneer in the production of alloy and special steels Alloy Steel Plant (ASP) another Unit of SAIL, is located here. There are a number of power plants, chemical and engineering industries and many small scale factories. Among them Durgapur Projects Limited( DPL), DTPS, DVC are well known. The location as well as excellent communication facilities of Durgapur has attracted investors to bet for their money.